Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also referred to as ventricular natriuretic peptide or B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by the human heart. Cardiomyocytes or cardiac muscles in the left ventricle secrete BNP. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of the body and therefore controls blood pressure and volume.BNP is a cardiac neurohormone released by the left ventricle (LV) of the heart when the demand for oxygen supply exceeds. The blood plasma concentration of BNP is directly proportional to LV volume. So, in conditions such as heart failure or overload conditions, the plasma level of BNP rises.Blood tests that measure BNP or its precursor, NT-proBNP, are becoming widely available. Elevated levels of BNP or NT-proBNP indicate heart failure, although levels may be normal in other conditions and when the disease is early in its course. In laboratory tests higher than normal levels of BNP and NT-proBNP have been associated with heart failure, coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic kidney failure.This bnp lab test measures the amount of BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) in your blood. BNP is produced by your heart when it is stretched or working harder than normal to pump blood. Your heart pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of your body, so it controls blood pressure and volume. The level of BNP in your body increases with the amount of fluid buildup in your circulatory system.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a type III intermediate filament protein belonging to the intermediate filament protein family. The GFAP gene in humans encodes the GFAP protein. The gene is located on chromosome 17. Several CNS cell types that include ependymal cells and astrocytes express GFAP proteins during development. Other human cells, such as keratinocytes, Leydig cells, chondrocytes, and osteocytes, also express GFAP. GFAP, along with the other three non-epithelial cells belonging to the same protein family, regulates the functions and structure of the cytoskeleton. Although many studies use GFAP as a cell marker, we have still not completely understood its role in the body.
GeneTex’s GFAP Antibody (GTX100822) is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects human, mouse, rat and dog GFAP by WB, IHC-paraffin, IHC-frozen, Flow cytometry and ICC. GeneTex’s the most sensitive anti-human GFAP antibody can be used for western blotting at 0.1~0.2ug/mL and immunohistochemistry at <10ng/mL. This antibody shows excellent specificity to human, mouse, rat and dog species and has no cross-reactivity with species tested.Astrocytes exhibit highly organized and complex structure. They function as a support cell because they are very close in structure and proximity to blood vessels, neurons, and synapses. Them being close to these organs gives them the ability to perform a variety of tasks. These include removing neurotransmitters from synapses, repairing injured neurons, and controlling blood flow. GFAP is often used as a marker for astrocytes because it is selectively expressed in this type of glial cell.
These antibodies were raised against purified rat cultured astrocytes. This antibody reacts with neuronal cells and pericytes in addition to astrocytes. It is useful for the detection of astrocyte reactivity in brain sections and other cell types.